MEDIA AND TOPOLOGIES
- Peer-to-peer networks are useful for only relatively small networks. They are often used in small offices or home environments.
- Client/server networks, also called server-centric networks, have clients and servers. Servers pro video centralized administration, data storage, and security. The client system requests data from the server and displays the data to the end user.
- The bus network topology is also known as a linear bus because the computers in such a network are linked together using a single cable called a trunk, or backbone.
- If a terminator on a bus network is loose, data communications might be disrupted. Any other break in the cable will cause the entire network segment to fail.
- In a start configuration, all devices on the network connect to a central devices, and this central devices creates a single point of failure on the network.
- In the ring topology, the network layout forms a complete ring. computers connect to the network cable directly or. more commonly, through a specialized network device.
- Breaking the loop of a ring network disrupts the entire network.
- The mesh topology requires each computer on the network to be individually connected to every other device. This configuration provides maximum reliability and redundancy for the network.
- Wireless networks use centralized device known as wireless access point (WAP).
- 802.2, the LLC sublayer, defines specifications for the Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer in the 802 standard series.
- 802.3 defines the carrier-sense multiple-access with collision detection (CSMA/CD) media access method used in Ethernet networks. This is the most popular networking standard used today.
- 802.5 defines Token Ring networking.
- 802.11 defines standards for wireless LAN communication.
- Many factors cause EMI, including computer monitors and fluorescent lighting fixtures.
- Copper-based media are prone to EMI whereas fiber-optic cable is resistant to it.
- Data signals may also be subjected to something commonly referred to a crosstalk. which occurs when signals from two cables, or from wires within a single cable, interfere with each other.
- The weakening of data signals as they traverse the media is referred to a attenuation.
- Half-duplex mode allows each device to both transmit ans receive, but only on of these processes can occur at a time.
- Full-duplex mode allow devices to receive and transmit simultaneously. A100 Mbps network card in full-duplex mode can operate at 200Mbps.
CABLES AND CONNECTIONS
- Thin coax is only .25 inches in diameter and has a maximum cable length of 185 meters (600 feet approx.)
- Thick coax networks use a device called a tap to connect a smaller cable to the thick coax back-bone. This coax has a 500-meter cable length.
- Attachment unit interface AUI ports are network interface ports that are often associated with thick coax (10Base5) networks. The AUI port is a 15-pin socket to which a transceiver is connected.
- SC and ST connectors are associated with fiber cabling. ST connectors offer a twist-type attachment and SC connectors are push-on connectors.
- RJ-45 connectors are used with UTP cable.
10BASEX, 100BASEX, AND 1000BASEX
- 10Base2, sometimes called Thinnet or Thin Ethernet, is the 802.3 specification for a network that uses thin coaxial cable (that is , RG-58 cable).
- 10Base2 specifies a maximum speed of 10Mbps ans uses BNC barrel and BNC T connectors to connect the cable and computers. At the physical ends of each cable segment, a 50-ohm terminator absorbs the signal, thus preventing signal reflection.
- The 10Base2 standard specifies a limit of 185 meters per segment (600 feet approx.)
- Token Ring Networks use special devices called multi-station access units MSAUs to create the network.
- A straight-through cable is used to connect systems to the switch or hub using the MDI-X ports.
- In a crossover cable, Wires 1 and 3 Wires 2 and 6(1326) are crossed.
- Bridges are used to divide networks and thus reduce the amount of traffic on each network.
- RIP is distance vector dynamic routing protocol for both TCP and IPX.
- A MAC address is 6-byte(48bits) hexadecimal address that lets a NIC be uniquely identified on the network. The first three bytes (00:D0:59) represent to manufacturer, last three are Universal LAN MAC address, which makes interface unique.
- HUB-------Physical (Layer 1)
- SWITCH--Data-Link (Layer 2)
- BRIDGE--Data-Link (Layer 2)
- ROUTER-Network (Layer 3)
- NIC--------Data-Link (Layer 2)
- As data is passed up or down through the OSI model structure, headers are added,encapsulation (going down) or removed,de-capsulation (going up), at each layer.
- The Application Layer provides access to the network for applications and certain end-user functions. It displays incoming information and prepares outgoing information for network access.
- The Presentation Layer converts data from the Application Layer into a format that can be sent over the network. It converts data from the Session Layer into a format that can be understood by the Application Layer. It also handles encryption and decryption of data and provides compression and decompression functionalities.
- The Session Layer synchronizes the data exchange between applications on separate devices. It handles error detection and notification to the peer layer on the other device.
- The Transport layer establishes, maintain, and breaks connections between two devices. It determines the ordering and priorities of data. It also performs error checking and verification and handles retransmissions, if necessary.
- The Network Layer provides mechanisms for the routing of data between devices across single or multiple network segments and handles the discovery of destination systems and addressing.
- The Data-Link Layer has two distinct sub-layers: LLC and MAC. It performs error detection and handling for the transmitted signals. It also defines the method by which the medium is accessed and defines hardware addressing through the MAC sublayer.
- The Physical Layer defines the physical structure of the network. It also defines voltage/signal rates and the physical connection method, as well as the physical topology.
- CLASS A uses first octet for network rest three for hosts. Class B uses two octet for Network and 2 for hosts and Class C uses first three for network and last 1 for hosts.
- Class A from 1 to 126 with default subnet 255.0.0.0.
- Class B from 128 to 191 with default subnet mask 255.255.0.0.
- Class C from 192 to 223 with default subnet mask of 255.255.255.0.
- The 127 network ID is reserved for local loopback.
- Application protocol maps to the application presentation, and session layers of OSI model. Application protocols include AFT,FTP,TFTP,NCP and SNMP.
- Transport protocols map to the Transport layer of the OSI model and are responsible for transporting data across the network. Transport protocols include ATP, NetBEUI, SPX, TCP and UDP.
- The NetBEUI protocol uses names as addresses.
- Network protocols are responsible for providing the addressing and routing information. Network protocols include IP. IPX and DP.
- The TCP/IP protocol suite is used by all major operating systems and is route-able protocol.
- IPX/SPX protocol is associated with NetWare network and is route-able.
- NETBEUI is used on Windows networks and is not route-able.
- DHCP/BOOTP automatically assign IP addressing information.
- DNS resolves host names to IP addresses.
- NAT/ICS translates private network addresses into public network address.
- WINS resolves NetBIOS names to IP addresses.
- SNMP provides network management facilities on TCP/IP based networks.
- In a network that does not use DHCP, you need to watch for duplicate IP addresses that prevent a user from logging onto the network.
- Class A address uses only the first octet to represent the network portion.
REMOTE ACCESS AND SECURITY PROTOCOLS
- The underlying technologies that enable the RAS process are dial-up protocols such as PPP and SLIP.
- SLIP also does not provide error checking or packet addressing, so it can be used only in serial communications.
- PPP provides several security enhancements compared to SLIP. The most important of these is the encryption of user names and password during the authentication process.
- ICA protocol allows client systems to access and run application on a server, using the resources of the server, with only the user interface, key-strokes, an mouse movement being transferred between the client and server computers.
- IPSec is designed to encrypt data during communication between two computers. IPSec operates at the Network layer of the OSI model and provides security for protocols that operate at higher layers.
- SSL is a security protocol used on the Internet. Secure Web site URLs defing with https:// instead of http://. HTTPS connections require a browser to establish a secure connection. Secure SSL connections for Web pages are made through port 443 by default.
- The security tokens used in Kerberos are knows as tickets.
RAID AND BACKUPS
- RAID 0 offers no fault tolerance and improves I/O performance. It requires a minimum of two disks.
- RAID 1, disk mirroring provides fault tolerance and requires two hard disks. Seprate disk controllers can be used as disk duplexing.
- RAID 5, disk striping with distributed parity requires a minimum of three disks. The total size of a single disk being used for parity calculation.
- In a full back all data is backed up. Full backups do not use the archive bit but do clear it.
- Incremental backups back up all data that has changed since the last full or incremental backup. Uses and clears the archive bit.
- Differential backups backup all data since the last differential backup. They use the archive bit but do not clear it.
VLAN AND NAS
- VLANs are used to segment networks. This is often done for oranization of security puposes.
- NAS is usedto offload data storage from traditional file servers. NAS devices are connected directly to the network and use the SMB and NFS application protocols.
- To log on to a NetWare server, you might need a username, password, tree, and context.
- Unix and Linux use the Network File System (NFS) protocol to provide file sharing capibilites between computers.
- SECURITY: PHYSICAL, LOGICAL PASSWORDS AND FIREWALLS
- A password that uses eight case-sensitive characters with letters, numbers and special characters often makes a strong password.
- Windows 2000 permissions include full control, modify, read and execute list folder contents read and write.
- When a user can't access files that other users can, verify that correct permissions are set.
- A firewall is a system or group of systems that controls the flow of traffic between two networks. A firewall often provides such services as NAT, proxy services and packet filtering.
- A proxy server allows Internet access to be controlled. Having a centralized point of access allows for a great deal of contrl over the use of Internet.
- You can PING the IP address of the local loop-back adapter by using the command ping 127.0.0.1.If this command is successful, you know that the TCP/IP protocol suite is installed correctly on you system and functioning.
- tracert reports the amount of time it takes to reach each router in the path. It is useful tool for isolating bottlenecks in a network. ARP is the part of the TCP/IP suite whose function is to resolve IP
MEDIA TOOLS AND LEADaddresses to the MAC address.
- ARP operates at the Network layer of the OSI.
- netstat is used to view both inbound and outbound TCP/IP network connections.
- nbtstat is used to display protocol and statistical information for NetBIOS over TCP/IP connections.
- ipconfig(Windows)/ifconfig(Linux) shows the IP configiguration information of all NICs instaled.
- ipconfig /all is used to display detailed TCP/IP configuration information.
- ipconfig /renew is used to refresh the IP.
- When looking for client connectivity problems using ipconfig, you should ensure that the gateway is correctly set.
- winipcfg is Windows95,98,Me equibalent of ipconfig command.
- nslookup command is TCP/IP diagnostic tool used to troubleshoot DNS problems.
MEDIA TOOLS AND LEAD
- A wire crimer is a tool that you use to attach media connectors to the ends of cables.
- Media testers, also called cable testers are used to test wheter a cable is working properly.
- An optical cable tester performs the same basic function as a wire media tester, but on optical media.
- The hardware loopback tests the outgoing signals of a device such as a network card.
- If the LED on a network card is constantly lit, you might have chattering network card.